Bilde av Berge, Jørgen
Bilde av Berge, Jørgen
Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries and Economics jorgen.berge@uit.no +4777646036 90169125 You can find me here

Jørgen Berge


Dean


  • Sara Harðardóttir, James S. Haile, Jessica Louise Ray, Audrey Limoges, Nicolas Van Nieuwenhove, Catherine Lalande et al.:
    Millennial-scale variations in Arctic sea ice are recorded in sedimentary ancient DNA of the microalga Polarella glacialis
    Communications Earth & Environment 2024 DOI
  • S.N. Pekkoeva, E.A. Kondakova, Stig Falk-Petersen, Jørgen Berge, S.A Murzina :
    Ontogenetic changes in the body structure of the Arctic fish Leptoclinus maculatus
    Scientific Reports 2023 ARKIV / DOI
  • Lars-Henrik Larsen, Marine Cusa, Sam Eglund-Newby, Jørgen Berge, Paul E. Renaud, Øystein Varpe et al.:
    Diets of gadoid fish in Arctic waters of Svalbard fjords during the polar night
    Polar Biology 2023 ARKIV / DOI
  • Estelle Coguiec, Kim S. Last, Jonathan H. Cohen, Laura Hobbs, Marvin Choquet, Elizaveta Ershova et al.:
    Photoperiodism and overwintering in boreal and sub-Arctic Calanus finmarchicus populations
    Marine Ecology Progress Series 2023 ARKIV / DOI
  • Bernhard Schartmuller, Philip Anderson, David Mckee, Stacey Connan-McGinty, Tomasz Piotr Kopec, Malin Hildegard Elisabeth Daase et al.:
    Development and calibration of a high dynamic range and autonomous ocean-light instrument to measure sub-surface profiles in ice-covered waters
    Applied Optics 2023 ARKIV / DOI
  • Damien Tran, Hector Andrade, Lionel Camus, Peter Leopold, Carl Ballantine, Jørgen Berge et al.:
    Evidence of separate influence of moon and sun on light synchronization of mussel's daily rhythm during the polar night
    iScience 08. February 2023 ARKIV / DOI
  • Maxime Geoffroy, Caroline Bouchard, Hauke Flores, Dominique Robert, Harald Gjøsæter, Carie Hoover et al.:
    The circumpolar impacts of climate change and anthropogenic stressors on Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) and its ecosystem
    Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene 2023 ARKIV / DOI
  • Sebastian Gerland, Randi Brunvær Ingvaldsen, Marit Reigstad, Arild Sundfjord, Bjarte Bogstad, Melissa Chierici et al.:
    Still Arctic? — The changing Barents Sea
    Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene 2023 ARKIV / DOI
  • Agata Weydmann-Zwolicka, Finlo Robert Cottier, Jørgen Berge, Sanna Majaneva, Piotr Kuklinski, Adrian Zwolicki :
    Environmental niche overlap in sibling planktonic species Calanus finmarchicus and C. glacialis in Arctic fjords
    Ecology and Evolution 2022 ARKIV / DOI
  • Boris Dristan Espinasse, Malin Daase, Elisabeth Halvorsen, Marit Reigstad, Jørgen Berge, Sünnje Linnéa Basedow :
    Surface aggregations of Calanus finmarchicus during the polar night
    ICES Journal of Marine Science 2022 ARKIV / DOI
  • Natalie Summers, Geir Johnsen, Aksel Alstad Mogstad, Håvard Løvås, Glaucia Moreira Fragoso, Jørgen Berge :
    Underwater Hyperspectral Imaging of Arctic Macroalgal Habitats during the Polar Night Using a Novel Mini-ROV-UHI Portable System
    Remote Sensing 2022 ARKIV / DOI
  • S.N. Pekkoeva, V.P. Voronin, Stig Falk-Petersen, Jørgen Berge, N.N. Nemova, S.A Murzina :
    Fatty Acids Composition of the Muscles of Leptoclinus maculatus (Stichaeidae) postlarvae from Kongsfjord and Rijpfjord, Spitsbergen
    Journal of Ichthyology 2022 DOI
  • Alison Clare Cleary, Trine A. Callesen, Jørgen Berge, Tove M. Gabrielsen :
    Parasite–copepod interactions in Svalbard: diversity, host specificity, and seasonal patterns
    Polar Biology 2022 ARKIV / DOI
  • Stacey Connan-McGinty, Neil S. Banas, Jørgen Berge, Finlo Robert Cottier, Stephen Grant, Geir Johnsen et al.:
    Midnight Sun to Polar Night: A Model of Seasonal Light in the Barents Sea
    Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 2022 ARKIV / DOI
  • Bent Herrmann, Kristine Cerbule, Jure Brčić, Eduardo Enrique Grimaldo Vela, Maxime Geoffroy, Malin Daase et al.:
    Accounting for Uncertainties in Biodiversity Estimations: A New Methodology and Its Application to the Mesopelagic Sound Scattering Layer of the High Arctic
    Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 2022 ARKIV / DOI
  • Laura Marangoni, Thomas Davies, Tim Smyth, Airam Rodríguez, Mark Hamann, Christian Duarte et al.:
    Impacts of artificial light at night in marine ecosystems—A review
    Global Change Biology 2022 ARKIV / DOI
  • Markus Brand, Lisa Spotowitz, Felix Christopher Mark, Jørgen Berge, Erlend Langhelle, Jan Marcin Weslawski et al.:
    Age class composition and growth of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in the shallow water zone of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard
    Polar Biology 2022 ARKIV / DOI
  • Jonathan H. Cohen, Kim Last, Corie L. Charpentier, Finlo Cottier, Malin Daase, Laura Hobbs et al.:
    Photophysiological cycles in Arctic krill are entrained by weak midday twilight during the Polar Night
    PLoS Biology 2021 ARKIV / DOI
  • Laura Hobbs, Neil S. Banas, Jonathan H. Cohen, Finlo Robert Cottier, Jørgen Berge, Øystein Varpe :
    A marine zooplankton community vertically structured by light across diel to interannual timescales
    Biology Letters 2021 ARKIV / DOI
  • Salve Dahle, Stig Falk-Petersen, Jørgen Berge :
    Forskningsskipet «Oceania»
    Svalbardposten 2023
  • Randall Hyman, Jørgen Berge, Maja Karoline Viddal Hatlebakk, Karoline Hokstad Barstein :
    A riot of hidden life in the Arctic after dark
    Nature 2023 DATA
  • Muriel Barbara Dunn, Geir Pedersen, Stig Falk-Petersen, Malin Hildegard Elisabeth Daase, Jørgen Berge, Emily Joanne Venables et al.:
    Target spectra discrimination of three Arctic species
    2023
  • Tomasz Piotr Kopec, Rahman Mankettikkara, Emily Joanne Venables, Ronald Berntsen, Jørgen Berge :
    CTD cast measurements from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard 2011-09 (SIOS Core Data)
    2022 DATA
  • Tomasz Piotr Kopec, Emily Joanne Venables, Rahman Mankettikkara, Ronald Berntsen, Jørgen Berge :
    CTD cast measurements from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard 2013-09 (SIOS Core Data)
    2022 DATA
  • Tomasz Piotr Kopec, Emily Joanne Venables, Rahman Mankettikkara, Ronald Berntsen, Jørgen Berge :
    CTD cast measurements from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard 2012-09 (SIOS Core Data)
    2022 DATA
  • Tomasz Piotr Kopec, Rahman Mankettikkara, Emily Joanne Venables, Jørgen Berge :
    CTD cast measurements from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard 2014-09 (SIOS Core Data)
    2022 DATA
  • Tomasz Piotr Kopec, Emily Joanne Venables, Rahman Mankettikkara, Jørgen Berge :
    CTD cast measurements from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard 2015-09 (SIOS Core Data)
    2022 DATA
  • Tomasz Piotr Kopec, Rahman Mankettikkara, Emily Joanne Venables, John-Terje Eilertsen, Jørgen Berge :
    CTD cast measurements from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard 2016-08 (SIOS Core Data)
    2022 DATA
  • Tomasz Piotr Kopec, Rahman Mankettikkara, Emily Joanne Venables, Reidar Kaasa, Jørgen Berge :
    CTD cast measurements from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard 2018-08 (SIOS Core Data)
    2022 DATA
  • Tomasz Piotr Kopec, Rahman Mankettikkara, Emily Joanne Venables, Hans Erik Dybvik, Jørgen Berge :
    CTD cast measurements from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard 2017-08 (SIOS Core Data)
    2022 DATA
  • Finlo Robert Cottier, Jørgen Berge, Colin Griffith, Estelle Dumont, Tomasz Piotr Kopec, Daniel Ludwig Vogedes :
    Temperature, salinity, light and fluorescence (CTD) measurements from the Kongsfjorden (Svalbard) marine observatory (mooring) September 2008-August 2009
    2022 DATA
  • Finlo Robert Cottier, Jørgen Berge, Colin Griffith, Estelle Dumont, Tomasz Piotr Kopec, Daniel Ludwig Vogedes :
    Temperature, salinity, light and fluorescence (CTD) measurements from the Kongsfjorden (Svalbard) marine observatory (mooring) September 2011-September 2012
    2022 DATA
  • Finlo Robert Cottier, Jørgen Berge, Colin Griffith, Estelle Dumont, Tomasz Piotr Kopec, Daniel Ludwig Vogedes :
    Temperature, salinity, light and fluorescence (CTD) measurements from the Kongsfjorden (Svalbard) marine observatory (mooring) August 2007-August 2008
    2022 DATA
  • Finlo Robert Cottier, Jørgen Berge, Colin Griffith, Estelle Dumont, Tomasz Piotr Kopec, Daniel Ludwig Vogedes :
    Temperature, salinity and fluorescence (CTD) measurements from the Kongsfjorden (Svalbard) marine observatory (mooring) June 2006-August 2007
    2022 DATA
  • Finlo Robert Cottier, Jørgen Berge, Colin Griffith, Estelle Dumont, Tomasz Piotr Kopec, Daniel Ludwig Vogedes :
    Temperature, salinity, light and fluorescence (CTD) measurements from the Kongsfjorden (Svalbard) marine observatory (mooring) September 2010-September 2011
    2022 DATA
  • Tomasz Piotr Kopec, Emily Joanne Venables, Rahman Mankettikkara, Reidar Kaasa, Jørgen Berge :
    CTD cast measurements from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard 2020-09 (SIOS Core Data)
    2022 DATA
  • Tomasz Piotr Kopec, Emily Joanne Venables, Rahman Mankettikkara, Richard Buvang, Jørgen Berge :
    CTD cast measurements from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard 2021-08 (SIOS Core Data)
    2022 DATA
  • Finlo Robert Cottier, Jørgen Berge, Colin Griffith, Estelle Dumont, Tomasz Piotr Kopec, Daniel Ludwig Vogedes :
    Temperature, salinity, light and fluorescence (CTD) measurements from the Kongsfjorden (Svalbard) marine observatory (mooring) October 2012-September 2013
    2022 DATA
  • Finlo Robert Cottier, Jørgen Berge, Colin Griffith, Estelle Dumont, Tomasz Piotr Kopec, Daniel Ludwig Vogedes :
    Temperature, salinity, light and fluorescence (CTD) measurements from the Kongsfjorden (Svalbard) marine observatory (mooring) September 2009-September 2010
    2022 DATA
  • Finlo Robert Cottier, Jørgen Berge, Colin Griffith, Estelle Dumont, John Beaton, Daniel Ludwig Vogedes :
    Temperature, salinity, light and fluorescence (CTD) measurements from the Kongsfjorden (Svalbard) marine observatory (mooring) September 2013-October 2014
    2022 DATA
  • Finlo Robert Cottier, Jørgen Berge, Colin Griffith, Estelle Dumont, John Beaton, Daniel Ludwig Vogedes et al.:
    Temperature, salinity, light and fluorescence (CTD) measurements from the Kongsfjorden (Svalbard) marine observatory (mooring) September 2014-September 2015
    2022 DATA
  • Jørgen Berge, Alf Håkon Hoel, Marit Reigstad :
    FN sitt tiår for havforskning og Arktis: internasjonalt samarbeid under press
    Nordnorsk debatt - Nordlys 19. March 2022
  • Jørgen Berge, Marit Reigstad, Alf Håkon Hoel :
    Om bærekraft på «menneskenes språk»
    Nordnorsk debatt - Nordlys 28. March 2022
  • Jørgen Berge, Finlo Robert Cottier, Colin Griffith, Estelle Dumont, John Beaton, Daniel Ludwig Vogedes :
    Temperature, salinity, light and fluorescence (CTD) measurements from the Rijpfjorden (Svalbard) marine observatory (mooring) September 2015-August 2016
    2021 DATA
  • Jørgen Berge, Finlo Robert Cottier, Tomasz Piotr Kopec, Estelle Dumont, Emily Joanne Venables, Daniel Ludwig Vogedes :
    Temperature, salinity, light and fluorescence (CTD) measurements from the Rijpfjorden (Svalbard) marine observatory (mooring) August 2016-August 2017
    2021 DATA
  • CR Cardwell, Jørgen Berge, Geir Johnsen :
    Arctic voyage shines light on some cold, hard truths.
    The Herald, UK 2021 DATA
  • Nancy Reney Bazilchuk, Jørgen Berge, Geir Johnsen :
    Lysforurensning I Arktis kan ha ødelagt forskningsresultater
    Gemini.no 2021 DATA
  • Jørgen Berge, Stephen Grant, Rune Bjørgum, Jonathan Cohen, David Mckee, Geir Johnsen et al.:
    Time series (2019) of irradiance in the PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) region measured under the dome of a light observatory in the Arctic (Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, Norway) derived from an USSIMO spectroradiometer.
    2021 DATA
  • Jørgen Berge, Stephen Grant, Rune Bjørgum, Jonathan Cohen, David Mckee, Geir Johnsen et al.:
    Time series (2018) of irradiance in the PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) region measured under the dome of a light observatory in the Arctic (Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, Norway) derived from an USSIMO spectroradiometer.
    2021 DATA
  • Jørgen Berge, Stephen Grant, Rune Bjørgum, Jonathan Cohen, David Mckee, Geir Johnsen et al.:
    USSIMO spectroradiometer raw data time series (2019) measured under the dome of a light observatory in the Arctic (Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, Norway)
    2021 DATA

  • The 50 latest publications is shown on this page. See all publications in Cristin here →

    Publications outside Cristin

    Vox videos (3x) from the Polar Night cruise in 2018:

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=msD4agiRTxM&feature=youtu.be

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yQliow4ghtU

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-3h4Xt9No9o

     

    Video from the April cruise (combined Arctic SIZE and Arctic PRIZE projects):

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HHZvg_zTX00&feature=youtu.be

     

    NRK programme "Schrødingers Katt" 25 March 2010 on underwater robotics and life in the Polar Night (starting at 09:10 - http://www.nrk.no/nett-tv/klipp/628322/)

     


    Research interests

    Arctic marine biology, polar night, zooplankton, organisms associated with the Arctic sea ice, effects of climate change


    Member of research group


    CV

    Curriculum vitae Jørgen Berge + 10-year track record


    Personal information
    First name, Surname: Jørgen Berge
    Date of birth: 04 Nov 1970
    Sex: Male
    Nationality: Norwegian

    Education
    Year    Faculty/department - University/institution - Country
    2000.  PhD (Dr. philos), UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway
    1996.  MSc (Cand. scient), UiT The Arctic University of Norway , Tromsø, Norway

     

    Positions - current and previous
    Year   Job title – Employer - Country
    2021 -  Dean Faculty of Bioscience, Fisheries and Economy
    2018-2021 Professor and Vice Dean (Research) Faculty of Bioscience, Fisheries and Economy, UiT The Arctic University of Norway
    2018-2023 Adjunct Professor, Centre of Excellence AMOS, NTNU, Norway
    2013-2021 Adjunct Professor, University Centre in Svalbard, Norway
    2012-2017 Professor in marine biology, UiT
    2008-2012 Professor in marine biology, University Centre in Svalbard, Norway
    2003-2008 Associate Professor, University Centre in Svalbard, Norway
    2001-2003 Postdoctoral fellow, UiT, Norway
     

    Project management experience (only project lead listed)
    Year Project owner - Project - Role - Funder
    2003-2020 Project lead of 13 finished projects funded by NFR and/or private industry with a total budget of more than 170M NOK.
    2020- PI Deep Impact – Artificial light in the Arctic, 12 M NOK from NFR (2020-2024)
    2016- PI Arctic ABC Development, National infrastructure programme, 20M NOK funded by NFR (2016-2025)

    Supervision of students (Total number of students)
    Master's students: 20
    Ph.D students: 8



    10-year track record (2011-2021) – Jørgen Berge

    International peer reviewed journal publications: 163
    Book chapters (books edited): 6 (1)
    International plenary/invited keynote lectures: >25
    H-index (Hirsch index): 42*
    I10-index: 124*
    Total number of citations: 6803*
    * Google Scholar, 2022-08-30.
    Berge has developed a large and strong national and international network. Nationally, this is most evident by being the leader of the ARCTOS research network (www.arctos.uit.no) since 2012. Internationally, Berge is  a member of the leader group of the Arctic Science Partnerships programme (www.asp-net.org), a network that now include key Arctic institutions from Canada, Greenland, Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Germany. Individual collaborators include Professor Geir Johnsen (NTNU, Norway – bio-optics and eco-physiology in relation to primary production, 19 co-authorships),  Professor Finlo Cottier (SAMS, UK – physical oceanography, 17 co-authorships), Professor Asgeir Sørensen (Director CoE AMOS, Norway – cybernetics, autonomous platforms, 4 co-authorships), Professor Paul Renaud (APN, Norway – ecosystem structure and benthic coupling processes, 15 co-authorships), Professor John Cohen (UDel, USA – bio-optics and ecophysiology related to detection of light, 5 co-authorships), Professor Stig Falk-Petersen (APN, Norway – trophic interactions, pelagic ecosystems, 23 co-authorships), Dr Maxime Geoffroy  (St. Johns, Canada – bio-acoustics, 7 co-authorships). For a full overview of national and international partners see www.mare-incognitum.no
     
    SCIENCE COMMUNICATION
    Berge was awarded the Fram Centre and UiT prizes for excellence in science communication in 2015 and 2016, respectively, much due to the Polar Night exhibition (https://uit.no/ressurs/uit/mediebok/polarnight/) that has been on display in both Norway (Polarmuseet Tromsø, Svalbard Museum Longyearbyen), Russia, Canada and in the US (full scale in Anchorage, Alaska, reduced display in Washington and Boston). Berge also has an outstanding record from communication in national and international media (newspapers, TV, radio, and magazines, see outreach summary on www.mare-incognitum.no).


    10 MOST INFLUENTIAL[1] PUBLICATIONS (chronological)
    (Number of citations from Google scholar, 30 Aug 2022)
    1.          Berge J. Geoffroy M., Daase M. Et al. (2020) Artificial light during the polar night disrupts Arctic fish and zooplankton behaviour down to 200m depth. Communications Biology 3(1):1-8. Google citations: 30. Lead author and driving force behind the experiments.
    2.          Berge J, Johnsen G., Cohen J (Eds). POLAR NIGHT Marine Ecology: Life and light in the dead of night. Springer Nature. Advances in Polar Ecology vol(4): 375 pages. Google citations: 14. The book is based on >10 years of research that have been initiated and organized by Berge.
    3.          Ludvigsen, M., Berge, J., Geoffroy, M., Cohen et al. (2018). Use of an Autonomous Surface Vehicle reveals small-scale diel vertical migrations of zooplankton and susceptibility to light pollution under low solar irradiance. Science Advances Vol 4:1. Google citations: 66. One of three main authors (first three) responsible for the planning, execution of field experiments and data analyses.
    4.          Last K, Hobbs L, Berge J, Brierley A, Cottier F (2016) Moonlight drives ocean scale mass vertical migration of zooplankton during the Arctic winter. Current Biology 26 (2):244-251. Google citations: 140. Planned the field experiments with the first author, coordinated data collection.
    5.          Berge J, Daase M, Renaud PE, Ambrose WG, Darnis G. et al. (2015) Unexpected levels of biological activity during the polar night offers new perspectives on a warming Arctic. Current Biology 25:1-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2015.08.024. Google citations: 147. Initiated, planned and driving force behind the multi-disciplinary campaigns at the base of this publication.
    6.          Berge J, Cottier F, Darnis G, Falk-Petersen S, Gabrielsen T et al (2015) In the dark: a review of ecosystem processes during the Arctic polar night. Progress in Oceanography http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2015.08.005. Google citations: 188. Planned and organized the work leading up to the paper, coordinated the writing.
    7.          Ware C, Berge J, Sundet JH, Kirkpatrick JB, Coutts ADM, Jelmert AJ, Alsos IG (2014). Climate change, non-indigenous species, and shipping: assessing the risk of species introduction to a high-Arctic archipelago. Diversity and Distributions 20 (1): 10-19. Google citations: 98. Supervising student (Ware).
    8.          Berge J, Varpe Ø, Moline MA, Wold A, Renaud PE, Daase M, Falk-Petersen S. (2012) Retention of ice-associated amphipods: possible consequences for an ice-free Arctic Ocean. Biology Letters doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2012.0517. Google citations: 40. Driving force behind the work from planning to analysing and writing.
    9.          Søreide JE, Leu E, Berge J, Graeve M, Falk-Petersen S (2010) Timing of blooms, algal food quality and Calanus glacialis reproduction and growth in a changing Arctic. Global Change Biology. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02175.x. Google citations: 538. Project leader of the project that funded the research.
    10.       Berge J, Cottier F, Last KS, Varpe Ø, Leu E. et al. (2009). Diel vertical migration of Arctic zooplankton during the polar night. Biology Letters 5(1): 69-72, doi:10.1098/rsbl.2008.048. Google citations: 200. The first three authors jointly planned, executed and analysed all data.
     
    Berge has had an increasingly high scientific production during his career, with an average of more than 11 papers each year since 2010. According to Web of Science Berge is the fifth highest ranking researcher in the world based on number of scientific articles with “Arctic” as the keyword during the last 10 years. During this period his main research activity and most important publications have been centered around biological processes during the Arctic polar night and winter. Since much of this work represents pioneering achievements in a new branch of marine biological science, citation rate and impact of these papers are likely to increase substantially in the years to come.
    Expeditions and field experience
    Berge has headed 2-3 research expeditions in the Arctic each year since 2003. This includes serving as PI on annual teaching/research expeditions with the RV Helmer Hanssen each autumn (UNIS courses AB202, 320 and 321) and since 2010 annual Polar Night land- or ship-based research expeditions. Berge has also lead extensive land-based campaigns, most notably the expeditions to Rijpfjorden (5x2 weeks) as part of the International Polar Year 2007-2008, and numerous smaller expeditions in and around Svalbard. Participated on a research expedition to the Antarctic on RV Polarstern in 2002.
    Organization of conferences
    2022                Head of the local organizing committee for Arctic Science Summit Week
    2017                Member of the science committee, Arctic Change Quebec, Canada
    2015                Polar Science week, Oban (UK) May 2015
    2014                Head of the Polar night science session of at Arctic Change in Ottawa
    2013                Permanent member of the board of Arctic Frontiers since 2013
    2012                Head of the science committee at Arctic Frontiers 2012
     
    FELLOWSHIPS AND AWARDS
    2018 -              Fellow of Academia Borealis Northern-Norway’s Academy of Science and Letters 
    2016                UiT The Arctic University of Norway award for excellence in science communication
    2015                The Fram Centre award for excellence in science communication
    2008 -              Fellow of the Norwegian Scientific Academy for Polar Research, Norway
    2001 - 2003      Personal postdoc scholarship from the Norwegian Research Council, Norway
    1997 – 2000     Personal PhD scholarship from the Norwegian Research Council


    [1] “influential” not necessarily in terms of number of citations, but also in terms of expected impact in the future