BREATHE trial incorporates several sub-studies.
Cardiac sub-study will evaluate cardiac symptoms, echocardiographic findings and the effects of azithromycin treatment on right-sided cardiac function and pulmonary hypertension.
Immunological sub-study will focus on the effects of azithromycin on markers of systemic inflammation, microbial translocation and immune activation
Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) sub-study will evaluate the applicability eNO measurement as a simple point-of-care tool for assessment of pulmonary inflammation.
Microbiome sub-study will investigate the diversity and composition of the respiratory and gut microbiome in HIV-positive children with chronic lung disease as well as determine the effect of azithromycin therapy on the microbiome composition.