Eco-Efficient Arctic Technologies Cooperation


Below you will find a list of the publications that have been produced within the DeConcrete project. The full texts can be found by following the link in the original source (journal articles, conferences, etc.). Some publications are still in progress and will be added as they are published. The project team would like to thank the editors and reviewers of the journals and the conference organisers for the opportunity to publish and, in particular, for their contribution to the quality of the project outputs.



KURSULA, Kalle, MISTRI, Abhijit, PERUMAL, Priyadharshini, ILLIKAINEN, Mirja. Utilization of Fine Concrete Waste in Concrete as Light Weight Aggregate via Granulation: Technical and Environmental Assessment . (in progress). 



REVILLA-CUESTA, Víctor, FIOL, Francisco, PERUMAL, Priyadharshini, ORTEGA-LÓPEZ, Vanesa and MANSO, Juan M. Using recycled aggregate concrete at a precast-concrete plant: A multi-criteria company-oriented feasibility study. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2022. Vol. 373. DOI 10.1016/j.jclepro.2022.133873

Work took place at the industrial-scale facilities of a precast-concrete company that was collaborating in this study. Flowability and mechanical behavior were maintained as concrete production volumes increased, and concrete strength even increased after adding coarse RA, due to a careful mix design. However, the durability performance worsened by around 20% when produced at industrial scale, being this worsening higher whether coarse RA was used. A Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) analysis, in which the criteria of the precast-concrete company defined the relative importance of each concrete property, showed the feasibility of manufacturing precast-SCC components containing coarse RA for interior usage, whose fundamental requirement is adequate mechanical strength. The results of the MCDM analysis also underlined the lower cost of coarse RA, making its use in SCC components cast with large concrete volumes advisable. Overall, the addition of coarse RA in the precast-concrete industry is recommended in the interests of a greener construction sector.


NOVÁKOVÁ, Iveta, SJÅFJELL, Jørgen Johnsen and VENKRBEC, Václav. Evaluation of optimal replacement of natural aggregates by recycled concrete aggregates to achieve sufficient durability . In: XXIV Nordic Concrete Research Symposium 2022, Proceedings . Online. Stockholm: Swedish Concrete Association, 2022. pp. 1–5. Available from:

The use of recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) is one way to reduce the depletion of raw materials for the production of concrete. In this article RCA was tested and evaluated. Concrete with 10 to 30% of overall RCA was examined in terms of its durability performance, particularly capillary suction and shrinkage. Capillary suction testing showed that RCA has better or identical results to the reference mixture. Concrete with a high proportion of RCA had reduced durability, even with reduced durability the concrete maintains all the requirements of the Norwegian Standard. RCA as partial replacement in smaller quantities shows good properties.


KURSULA, Kalle, PERUMAL, Priyadharshini, OHENOJA, Katja and ILLIKAINEN, Mirja. Production of artificial aggregates by granulation and carbonation of recycled concrete fines . Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management . 2022. Vol. 24, no. 6. DOI 10.1007/s10163-022-01457-y

In this study, recycled concrete fines were granulated and used as lightweight aggregates. Ladle slag, a steel industry residue, was used as a co-binder in different ratios (0, 10, 20, and 30%). The materials were blended and granulated, and then the granules were cured in three conditions: ambient condition, humidity chamber, and carbonation chamber. The results showed that the ladle slag content of 30% cured in a humidity chamber produced the strongest granules, with a crushing strength of 127 N, which was 135% greater than a commercial lightweight aggregate. The granules generally had satisfactory density and water absorption with a higher ladle slag content.Carbonation increased the granule strength with a low ladle slag content and decreased the granules' water absorption. The improved physical and mechanical properties of carbonated granules are attributed to the formation of calcium carbonate during the carbonation process. The granules produced in this study show good potential for use as lightweight aggregates in the construction industry.


MOUKANNAA, Samira, KURSULA, Kalle, PERUMAL, Priyadharshini, OHENOJA, Katja and ILLIKAINEN, Mirja. Recycling of Precast Concrete Waste Sludge With Paper Mill and Biomass Ashes for Lightweight Granulated Aggregate Production . Frontiers in Materials . 2022. Vol. 9. DOI 10.3389/fmats.2022.877160

This study proposes a promising solution for recycling construction and demolition wastes (CDWs) from the precast concrete waste sludge and ashes from paper mill sludge and biomass. Artificial lightweight aggregates were designed and produced by alkali activating a mixture of 50–90 wt% of dried and milled CDW with 3–25 wt% of ash and 5–35 wt% of blast furnace slag. The properties of the produced aggregates were assessed via density, water absorption, porosity, and crushing tests, in addition to microstructural characterizations using XRD and scanning electron microscopy SEM analysis. The optimum NaOH concentration was 8M with the highest mechanical properties and lowest efflorescence. The produced aggregates revealed a high crushing force of 82 N at 28 days with 50 wt% CDW, 15 wt% biomass ash, and 25 wt% blast furnace slag presenting a possible recycling pathway for such side-stream addition to microstructural characterizations using XRD and scanning electron microscopy SEM analysis. The optimum NaOH concentration was 8M with the highest mechanical properties and lowest efflorescence. The produced aggregates revealed a high crushing force of 82 N at 28 days with 50 wt% CDW, 15 wt% biomass ash, and 25 wt% blast furnace slag presenting a possible recycling pathway for such side-stream materials. in addition to microstructural characterizations using XRD and scanning electron microscopy SEM analysis. The optimum NaOH concentration was 8M with the highest mechanical properties and lowest efflorescence.The produced aggregates revealed a high crushing force of 82 N at 28 days with 50 wt% CDW, 15 wt% biomass ash, and 25 wt% blast furnace slag presenting a possible recycling pathway for such side-stream materials.



NOVÁKOVÁ, Iveta, DROZDYUK, Tatiana, OHENOJA, Katja, AYZENSHTADT, Arcady, ARNTSEN, Bård, PERUMAL, Priyadharshini and DYVESVEEN, Martin Skjerve. A Comprehensive Summary of Available Legislation and Practices in Demolition and Construction & Demolition Waste Management in the Arctic Region. Nordic Concrete Research . 2021. Vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 145–162. DOI 10.2478/ncr-2021-0009

The main subject of this article is an overview of currently used demolition practices, CDW management, and verification of areas where practices with lower environmental impact and increase of material circularity could be utilized. Two fundamental documents, namely "EU Construction & Demolition Waste Management Protocol" and "Guidelines for the waste audits before demolition and renovation works of buildings", were published by the European Union (EU) in 2019 and serve as a foundation for changes in demolition activities and CDW management in the EU and adventitiously also in the Russian Federation and Norway.


PERUMAL, Priyadharshini, KORVA, Antti and OMRAN, Mamdouh. Sustainable Treatment Methods for Recycled Concrete Aggregate. In: KANJEE, Janina (ed.), YOUNG CONCRETE RESEARCHERS, ENGINEERS & TECHNOLOGIST SYMPOSIUM (YCRETS) . Johannesburg : Cement & Concrete SA, 2021. pp. 81–88.

For a reasonable use of recycled aggregate in concrete applications, it is important to consider methods that can enhance the quality of these aggregates. The European Union-funded (Kolartic CBC) project "DeConcrete" attempted to identify some eco-efficient technologies that can be used for reusing concrete waste in construction materials. In this regard, different treatment methods for recycled aggregates have been studied, including heat treatment through microwaving, carbonation, and pozzolanic coating. The treatment methods are carefully chosen such that minimum secondary waste is produced, and thus, maximum material is recycled. In this study, the water absorption capacity and dry density of the recycled aggregate were evaluated and compared with those of the treated aggregate.


NOVAKOVA, Iveta and PERUMAL, Priyadharshini. Impact of reclaimed fines from concrete handling on fresh properties of cementitious materials. In: Advanced Materials for Sustainable Infrastructure Development, Gordon Research Seminar 2022 & Gordon Research Conference 2022 . Lucca, 2022.

This research analyzes differences in fresh paste and mortar properties due to the addition of 10 vol.% of  various types of concrete fines (CF) as partial cement replacement. Properties of CF's such as chemical  composition, fineness or density are provided along with standard consistency, start and end of setting time of  pastes or workability, density and air content of fresh mortars completed with shrinkage and strength  measurements. Results showed a lower density of CF's than cement, and higher water demand when used as a  substitution for cement. The fineness of CF's played a significant role not only in fresh paste and mortar  properties, where workability is reduced.The strength of hardened mortars with tested SCM was reduced up  to 16.0% at 28 days in the case of RCP 10%, but no retardation in early age strength was observed.


AYZENSHTADT, AM, DROZDYUK, TA, DANILOV, VE, FROLOVA, MA and GARAMOV, GA Surface activity of concrete waste powders. Nanotechnologies in Construction . 2021. Vol. 13, no. 2. DOI 10.15828/2075-8545-2021-13-2-108-116

One of the most large-tonnage wastes of the construction industry is concrete scrap, obtained as a result of the dismantling of buildings and structures, the service life of which has reached its maximum or requires significant capital changes. In our opinion, works on the use of the resulting dust-like fraction are of particular interest. One of the promising methodological approaches in this direction is the observance of the principles of nanotechnology, which consists of obtaining finely dispersed components as active components of the created compositions.


DROZDYUK, Tatiana, AYZENSHTADT, Arkady and AKSENOV, Sergey. Effectiveness evaluation criteria of using fine powders of secondary concrete as a component of composite binder. In: Materials Science Forum . 2021. DOI 10.4028/

It was experimentally shown that fine powders of secondary concrete are effective as components of CB (Composite Binder), but it is necessary to pre-activate concrete waste to its optimal parameters. The symbioses of changes in such parameters as surface activity, the specific heat of the hydration reaction of highly dispersed concrete fractions, and compressive strength of samples of fine-grained concrete using CB, which contains a highly dispersed fraction of secondary concrete, is established.


AYZENSHTADT, Arkady M., DANILOV, Victor E., DROZDYUK, Tatiana A., FROLOVA, Maria A. and GARAMOV, Georgiy A. Integral quality indicators of waste concrete for reuse. Nanotechnologies in Construction . 2021. Vol. 13, no. 5. DOI 10.15828/2075-8545-2021-13-5-276-281

Waste concrete is one of the main heavy construction wastes having good recycling prospects with regard to rational nature management related to reducing the consumption of natural resources. However, the widespread introduction of waste concrete is hindered on the one hand by the variety of compositions and structures of recycled scrap, and on the other hand by the lack of quantitative criteria to choose the most rational area of ​​its use (a binder component, coarse and fine aggregate, finely dispersed filler, etc.).



PERUMAL, Priyadharshini, NOVAKOVA, Iveta and DANILOV, Victor E. DeConcrete: Eco-efficient arctic technologies for construction and demolition practices. Indian Concrete Journal . Online. 2020. Vol. 94, no. 8. Available from:

Increasing the reuse potential of construction and demolition waste (CDW) in building industries is one of the main focuses of several projects funded by the European Union. One such example is DeConcrete which is exclusively addressing the issues in the Arctic region and improves the cooperation between countries under Kolarctic CBC (cross border co-operation). The project is planned based on the current scenario of CDW handling in this region, and ways to improve the quality applications of CDW in construction industries other than backfilling/earth applications.


FROLOVA, Maria, SHINKARUK, Anna, MAKHOVA, Tatiana, PERUMAL, Priyadharshini and NOVAKOVA, Iveta. Life cycle: Comparative approach of European countries. In: International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, SGEM . 2020. DOI 10.5593/sgem2020/6.1/s26.049

This article provides a comparative analysis of successful European practices and analyzes in detail categories used for the assessment of the environmental impact of a construction project throughout its life cycle. The larger implementation of these approaches into practice will reduce the negative impact on the environment, as well as comprehensively solve many environmental and material challenges.