autumn 2017
MFA-8030 Maritime Technologies in Polar Waters - 10 ECTS

Last changed 19.01.2018

Type of course

The course is a technical joint course with Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology. The course will be given as an intensive course with participants from both universities.

The course may be taken as a singular course.

Admission requirements

The course requires a Master Degree in Nautical Science, Maritime/Marine Technology, or equivalent qualifications

Course overlap

TEK-3030 Maritim Technologies in Polar Waters 7 stp

Course content

The course shall contain the main parts: Winterization in cold areas, de-icing technology, marine icing theory, advanced navigation systems.

Winterization in cold areas and de-icing technology

  • Safety regulations.
  • Automation and technology.
  • Anti-icing and de-icing.

Marine icing theory

  • Threats connected to icing on ships, in particular sea-spray icing.
  • Different ship-icing prediction models and methodologies, their limitations and feasibility for safety planning.
  • Key environmental parameters connected to icing.
  • Uncertainties related to weather parameters applied into the icing models.
  • Information about large scale weather patterns as e.g. polar lows.

Advanced navigation systems

  • Remote monitoring/control system and its related technology.
  • Control technology for ship.
  • Data analysis and optimization.
  • Ship weather routing.

Objectives of the course


The student:

  • has advanced knowledge on de-icing systems on ships operating in Polar waters and the threats connected to icing on ships, in particular sea-spray icing
  • can evaluate technical limitations in de-icing systems with respect to available power and load,
  • can evaluate limitations in de-icing systems with respect to meteorological and icing conditions,
  • can contribute to ship-icing prediction models and methodologies, their limitations and feasibility for safety planning,
  • has advanced knowledge of the key environmental parameters connected to icing and how to obtain information about these parameters,
  • can evaluate and asses the uncertainties related to weather parameters applied into the icing models,
  • has advanced knowledge of how information about large scale weather patterns obtained by predictions from ensemble prediction systems can be applied for planning,
  • is in the forefront of knowledge of state-of-the-art technologies used in the maritime segment of operations in Polar waters,
  • has a thorough knowledge of the key environmental factors affecting the performance of maritime operations in the Polar regions,
  • can evaluate the application of data analysis and optimization related to ship operation,
  • has advanced knowledge of control engineering related to ship operation.



The student:

  • can handle and ensure the safety on board by assessing the technical limitations in de-icing systems
  • can handle limitations in icing models and weather parameters applied into the models,
  • can formulate plans to ensure the safety of navigation based on weather information related to icing,
  • can analyse and deal critically with basic heat flux calculations applied in icing models,
  • has state-of-the-art knowledge of the limitations in control engineering for ship operation,
  • can formulate suitable courses etc. for ship operations (weather routing).


The student can:

  • manage complex situations based on knowledge about the capabilities of the de-icing systems to ensure the safety on board
  • handle complex situations which involves how accumulated ice limits the operation of a vessel
  • manage and plan safe trips in areas where icing is a possible risk factor by utilizing necessary weather information
  • make manage complex navigational situations based on knowledge about the capabilities of control engineering,
  • participate in scientific discussions in international forums related to maritime technologies in Polar waters

Language of instruction


Teaching methods

Lectures are concentrated in two weeks and include group-work, self-studies, and colloquium


Scientific report and oral exam. Letter grading A - F. The scientific report and oral exam count 50% each in the final grading.

Compulsory exercises must be approved. It will be specified at the beginning of the semester.

No re-sit exam

Recommended reading/syllabus

Kalnay, E. Historical overview of numerical weather prediction. In Atmospheric Modeling, Data Assimilation and Predictability, chapter 1, pages 1-31. Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Leutbecher, M. and Palmer, T. N. Ensemble forecasting. Journal of Computational Physics, 227(7):3515-3539, 2008

Løset, S., Shkinek, K. N., Gudmestad, O. T., and Høyland, K. V. Actions from ice on arctic offshore and coastal structures, chapter 6 Icing in the Ocean, pages 191{206. LAN, St. Petersburg, 2006. Student's Books for Institutes of Higher Education. Special Literature.

Lozowski, E. P., Szilder, K., and Makkonen, L. Computer simulation of marine ice accretion. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 358 (1776):2811-2845, 2000.

Makkonen, L., Brown, R. D., and Mitten, P. T. Comments on "Prediction of vessel icing for near-freezing sea temperatures". Weather and Forecasting, 6:565-567, 1991.

Mertins, H. O. Icing on shing vessels due to spray. Marine Observer, 38(221):128-130, 1968.

Overland, J. E., Pease, C. H., Preisendorfer, R. W., and Comiskey, A. L. Prediction of vessel icing. Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology, 25(12).

Samuelsen, E. M., Løset, S., and Edvardsen, K. Marine icing observed on KV Nordkapp during a cold air outbreak with a developing polar low in the Barents Sea. In Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions, number 87, pages 1{14, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, 2015.

Samuelsen, E. M. Ship-icing prediction methods applied in operational weather forecasting (in progress). Weather and Forecasting, 2017.

Samuelsen, E. M., Edvardsen, K., and Graversen, R. G. Modelled and observed sea-spray icing in Arctic-Norwegian waters. Cold Regions Science and Technolgy (submitted, September 2016), 2016.

Shellard, H. C. The meteorological aspects of ice accretion on ships. Technical Report 10, World Meteorological Organization, 1974. Marine Science Aairs Report.

Zakrzewski, W. P. Splashing a ship with collision-generated spray. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 14(1): 65.

Syllabus related to advanced navigation systems is to be announced at the beginning of the semester.

  • About the course
  • Campus: Tromsø |
  • ECTS: 10
  • Course code: MFA-8030