Guide to referencing styles
Referencing styles are established systems of referencing with consistent rules. Referencing style requirements cover the two elements of a referencing system:
- in-text citations such as author-date citations or footnotes
- reference lists or bibliographies
There are three standard systems for citing sources:
- Author-date system (e.g. APA, Chicago, Harvard, MLA)
- Numeric system (e.g. IEEE, Vancouver)
- Notes and bibliography system (e.g. Chicago)
UiT does not have a standard referencing style for use across the university, but some UiT departments may have a preferred referencing style.
The choice of what style to use will depend on the course/subject you are studying. You should consult with those responsible for your course/subject to clarify what style to use and ensure you are consistent in your use of that style.
If you are writing for publication, you will find that the journal or publisher will have its own style and guidelines.
An author-date style commonly used in psychology, economics, educational sciences and health sciences.
Both a footnote style (Chicago 17 A) and an author-date style (Chicago 17 B) commonly used in the humanities.
An author-date style used in many disciplines. There are many versions of Harvard style, and there is no single 'correct' style.
A numbered style used in engineering and computer scienes.
An author-page number style used in linguistics and literature.
- MLA Style Introduction (Purdue University)
A numbered style used in medicine, health sciences and natural sciences.
- Citing Medicine (2nd ed.) (National Library of Medicine (US))